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Enamel, is made up of a three-dimensional network of Calcium ions (Ca2+), Phosphate ions (PO43-), and Hydroxide ions (OH-)
arranged in a regular pattern. The formula for this material is Ca5(PO4)3(OH), and is called Hydroxylapatite (HAP) [1].

The name "Tooth Germ" refers to the Enamel, the Dental papilla, and the Dental Follicles of a tooth, together as a single unit.
The Dental Pulp is where the Odontoblast cells are present and is located in the center of the tooth, surrounded by Dentin.

Dentin is the softer, bone-like matrix, between the Dental Pulp and the Enamel. This prevents the more brittle Enamel from fracturing.
One of the functions of the Dental Pulp, is to keep the surrounding tissue supplied with moisture and nutrients.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and is mostly comprised of the mineral Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) - Bone Salt.
Also written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit comprises of two entities.
Phosphate: A salt or ester of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), containing the group PO43-.
Phosphates are important in metabolism and are frequently used in fertilizers.
Base: A substance that can donate a pair of Electrons to form a covalent bond. A substance that yields Hydroxyl ions (-OH) when dissolved in water. When acids and bases react with each other, they can form a salt and (usually) water.
This is called a neutralization reaction and takes the following form: H + -OH → H2O)

Salts: Are created when the Hydrogen atoms (H1-) of an acid, are replaced by the electropositive ions of a base (Metals).
One example is the creation of salt, through the combination of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) with Sodium hydroxide (NaOH):

HCl + NaOHNaCl + H2O

Chlorine (e 1- / 1+) is a Halogen, while Sodium (Na1+) is an Alkali metal with a positive net charge.

(Cl) + (H1-) = HCl
(Na1+) + (-OH) = NaOH
Alkaline earth metals: Any of the divalent electropositive metals, or their oxides.
These include Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra).

They belong to group 2A of the periodic table and are usually shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity.
They lose their two outermost Electrons to form cations with charge 2+ and an Oxidation state, or Oxidation number of 2+.
Oxidation: For example, Oxygen can be used to remove Electrons from Iron (Fe).
This is because Oxygen needs 2 Electrons to make itself stable, so it has an electric charge of -2.
Iron oxide: These are chemical compounds composed of Iron and Oxygen [2].
Iron (Fe) has an oxidation state ranging from -2 to +6 (Although +2 and +3 are the most common) [3].
However, you cannot have an Oxidation reaction without a corresponding reduction reaction [4].
Phosphoric acid: (H3PO4) Also called Orthophosphoric acid, is a colourless solid tribasic acid, used in the manufacture of fertilizers and soap. The crystalline acid is formed by the oxidation of Phosphorus; its salts are called phosphates.
Univalent: Having a valence of one.
A Phosphate is any one of three chemical compounds, made up of Phosphorus, Oxygen, and Hydrogen. Two molecules of it are formed by adding three molecules of water (H2O), to one molecule of Phosphorus pentoxide (Phosphoric anhydride, P2O5).

[ H2O ] + [ H2O ] + [ H2O ] → (P2O5 -6) =  2 (H3PO4)
Phosphorus pentoxide: A corrosive compound, P2O5 and the ultimate anhydride of Orthophosphoric acid.
Anhydride: A chemical compound formed from another by the removal of water. Any compound formally derived from another (Or from others) by the loss of a water molecule, especially acid anhydrides.
Any of the Oxygen-containing acids of Phosphorus that are Hydration products of phosphoric anhydride.
It forms salts with either one, two, or all three of the Hydrogen atoms (H3PO4), replaced by some other positive ion (e+).

The Conjugate base of Phosphoric acid is the Dihydrogen phosphate ion, (H) 2PO−4,
which in turn has a conjugate base of Hydrogen phosphate HPO2−4, which also has a conjugate base of Phosphate, PO3−4.
Dihydrogen: The divalent radical formed by two separate Hydrogen atoms or ions.
A Dihydrogen bond is the interaction between a metal Hydride bond and an OH or NH group or other proton donor.

Hydride: Compounds containing Hydrogen bonded to metals or metalloid may be referred to as hydrides, even though these Hydrogen centres can have a protic character.

Or, a Hydrogen with another, more electropositive element or group. In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of Hydrogen (H),
or more commonly, an alloy or compound in which one or more Hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, or basic properties.
Polarize: To separate or accumulate positive and negative electric charges in two distinct regions.
Hydrogen: At (STD), Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic,
highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula (H2).
Ester: A compound most often formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water.
It contains the functional group Carbonyl (C=O), joined via Carbon to another Oxygen atom.
Transesterification: (Organic chemistry) The reaction of an ester with an alcohol in order to replace the alkoxy group.
It is used in the synthesis of polyesters and in the production of biodiesel.
alkyl group: An alkane that is missing one Hydrogen atom.

Side chain: A chemical group that is attached to a core part, called "main chain" or backbone.
The placeholder R is often used to represent the alkyl (Saturated Hydrocarbon) group, in chemical structure diagram.
To indicate other non-carbon groups in structure diagrams, X, Y, or Z is often used [5].
What is a Carboxyl?

A Carboxyl group is an organic functional group consisting of a Carbon atom, double bonded to an Oxygen atom and single bonded to a Hydroxyl group.

This is written as C-(= O)OH, or -COOH [6]. The C- at the beginning, is the Carboxyl group,
double bonded to one Oxygen atom (= O) and single bonded to a Hydroxyl group (The radical -OH).

Carbon needs 4 Electrons to fill it's Valence Shell, so it has a net electric charge of -4.
And Oxygen needs 2 Electrons to make itself stable, giving it an electric charge of -2.

So the Carbon atom shares two of it's own Electrons with Oxygen (= O), forming a double bond and making the Oxygen atom stable.
But the Carbon atom still needs 2 more Electrons.

The Carbon atom, double bonded to an Oxygen atom (C=O-2), still needs 2 more Electrons. So it shares one with a Hydroxyl group, whose Oxygen atom needs one more Electron. This gives the formula C-(= O)OH, or -COOH a net electric charge of -1

What is a Hydroxyl?

The Hydroxyl group (The radical -OH) is one Oxygen bonded to a Hydrogen atom. Hydrogen has just 1 valence electron, or -1.
The Oxygen atom needs 2 Electrons (-2), so it shares the single electron that Hydrogen has, but it still needs another Electron.

[7]  [8] [9].
The teeth (And bones) are able to heal themselves in a process called Remineralization.

Fluoroapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (Calcium Fluorophosphate) is an important mineral in Enamel.
It is formed by replacing the Hydroxide ion (-OH) in Hydroxyapatite with Fluorine [10].

But is the Fluoride that's being used in the Fluoridation of the municipal water supplies in WA,
the same type that replaces the Hydroxide ions (-OH) in the Hydroxylapatite?
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Submitted on
November 7, 2014


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